1914 is a turning point in world history. The  political and social processes that began in 1789 

culminated in the First World War that broke 

out in that year and decisively shaped the course 

of the twentieth century. Historians therefore 

call this as ‘the long nineteenth century’. This 

was the first industrial war that drew on the 

economic resources of the entire world, and also 

affected large sections of the civilian population. 

The political map of the world was redrawn. 

Three major empires lay shattered by the end 

of the War: Germany, Austria–Hungary, and 

the Ottomans. The biggest outcome of the War 

was the Russian Revolution. It was a unique 

event as well as the first revolution of its kind 

in world history. For the first time, countries 

tried to bring about world peace through the 

League of Nations. In this lesson, we discuss the 

circumstances leading to the outbreak of the 

First World War and its repercussions, including 

the Russian Revolution and the formation of an Capitalist Countries’ Race for 


The aim of capitalistic industry was to 

produce more and more. The surplus wealth 

thus produced was used to build more factories, 

railways, steamships and other such undertakings. 

Revolution in the means of communication and 

transportation in the latter half of the nineteenth 

century facilitated the process of European 

expansion in Africa and other places. 

A striking feature of nineteenth century 

was that Europe emerged as the dominant 

power while Asia and Africa were colonized 

and exploited. Within Europe, England held 

a pre-eminent position as the world leader of 

capitalism. An ever-growing demand for markets 

and raw materials made the capitalist powers race 

around the world for expanding their empire for 


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